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Bitter Maxim (Peshkov Alexey Maksimovich)

Bitter Maxim (Peshkov Alexey Maksimovich)

Prose writer, playwright, publicist

  • Maxim Gorky (Alexey Maksimovich Peshkov) was born on March, 16th (28), 1868 in Nizhni Novgorod.
  • Father Bitter, Maxim Savateevich Peshkov, was operating Astrakhan office of shipping company of I.Kolchin.
  • Mother Bitter, Barbarian Vasilevna, nee Kashirin, was daughter of Nizhniy Novgorod merchant.
  • Grandfather Bitter, Vasily Kashirin, was a prosperous merchant, foreman city krasilnogo shops; it was repeatedly selected deputy of Nizhniy Novgorod Duma.
  • Summer of 1871 - from a cholera dies Maxim Savateevich. As involuntary originator of his death of Barbarian Vasilevna considered small Alexey (father has caught, nursing son who has ill with a cholera). Mother gives Alexey to a family of father. grandfather and grandmother, big lover of national fairy tales are accepted to education of future writer. Since six years of boy start to train in tserkovno-slavic reading and writing.
  • 1877 - 1879 - Alexey Peshkov studies in Nizhniy Novgorod Kunavinsky school.
  • 1879 - from a transient consumption dies mother Alexey Peshkov. After that in family Kashirinyh conflicts in which result it is ruined begin and grandfather goes mad. In absence of money Alexey Peshkov is compelled to leave study and to go «in people».
  • 1879 - 1884 - Alexey one behind another changes "training" places. At first it pupil of shoemaker (relative Kashirinyh), then pupil in a drawing workshop, after - in ikonopisnoj. At last it becomes povarenkom by a steamship going across Volga. Writer Maxim Gorky is a lot of years after already known "Kind" M.A.Smurogo who was semiliterate recollects cook of a steamship, but thus collected books. Thanks to cook, young Bitter gets acquainted with most different products of world literature, is engaged in self-education.
  • 1884 - Peshkov moves to Kazan, he dreams to enter university. Receipt has not taken place because of a lack of means, and for Peshkov «school of a revolutionary underground» has begun. He visits gymnasia and student's narodnicheskie mugs, takes a great interest in corresponding literature, enters conflicts to police. Simultaneously he earns to itself(himself) for a life, carrying out manual labour.
  • December, 1887 - strip of vital failures leads Peshkov to suicide attempt.
  • 1888 - 1891 - Alexey Peshkov wanders across Russia in search of work and impressions. It passes Volga region, Don, Ukraine, Crimea, Southern Besarabiju, caucasus. Peshkov has time to visit farm laborer village and washerman of ware, to work on fish, salt-mines, watchman on railway and worker in repair shops. Simultaneously he has time to fasten contacts in creative environment, to participate in collisions with police and to earn to itself(himself) reputation of "unreliable". Wandering, Peshkov collects prototypes of future heroes it is appreciable by early creativity of writer when people of "bottom" became heroes of its products.
  • 1890 - Peshkov gets acquainted with writerV.G.Korolenko.
  • on September, 12th, 1892 - in tiflisskoj to newspaper "caucasus" Peshkov's story «Makar CHudra» for first time is printed. Product has been signed "Maxim Gorky".
  • Formation Bitter as writer passes with assistance of Korolenko which recommends new author in publishing houses, corrects its manuscripts.
  • 1893 - 1895 - stories Bitter often leave in privolzhskoj to a press. These years have been written: "CHelkash", "Revenge", "Old woman Izergil", "Yemelyan Piljaj", "Conclusion", «Song about falcon».

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  • Peshkov signs stories various pseudonyms which in total was nearby 30. Most known of them: «A.P.», «M. G», «A-a!», «One of perplexed», «Iegudiil Chlamys», "Taras Oparin", etc.
  • 1895 - with assistance of Korolenko Bitter becomes employee of "Samara newspaper» where daily writes feuilletons in a heading "By way", subscribing «Iegudiil Chlamys».
  • Same time - in «Samara newspaper» Bitter gets acquainted with Ekaterina Pavlovnoj Volzhinoj who serves as proof-reader in edition.
  • 1896 - Bitter and Volzhina marry.
  • 1896 - 1897 - Bitter works in homeland, in newspaper «Nizhniy Novgorod leaf».
  • 1897 - at Bitter becomes aggravated a tuberculosis, and he with wife moves to Crimea, and therefrom - in village Maksatikha of Poltava province.
  • Same year - at writer is born son Maxim.
  • Beginning of 1898 - Bitter comes back to Nizhni Novgorod where works over drawing up of collection of own products.
  • 1898 - leaves first collection of products of Maxim Gorkogo «Sketches and stories» in two volumes. collection has been recognised by critics event in Russian and European literature.
  • 1899 - «Sketches and stories» are republished in a year after an exit already in three volumes. Bitter quickly becomes one of leading workers of art of Russia. It is familiar withto A.P.Chekhov, I.E.Repinym,L.N.Tolstym, F.I.Shalyapin … Round Bitter writers-neorealists (I.A.Bunin,A.I.Kuprin, L.N.Andreev) rally. same year - Bitter writes novel "Foma Gordeyev".
  • 1900 - Bitter gets acquainted with actress of Moscow Art Theatre convinced marksistkoj by Maria Fedorovnoj Andreevoj.
  • April, 1901 - Bitter is arrested in Nizhni Novgorod and taken into custody for participation in student's excitements in Petersburg. Under arrest writer stays month then it is released under house arrest, and then is sent to Arzamas. Same year in magazine "Life" there is «a Song about a petrel» then magazine is closed by authorities.
  • 1902 - in MHaTe plays "At bottom" and "Petty bourgeoises" are put. premiere "At bottom" passes with unknown triumph.
  • Same year - Maxim Gorky is selected by honorary academician under category of graceful literature.Nikolay IIresults of these elections are cancelled by order. In answer ranks of honorary academicians refuse Chekhov and Korolenko.
  • 1903 - poem "Person" is written. Later Bitter names its "credo". Rupture with wife.
  • 1904 - Andreeva becomes civil wife Bitter.
  • 1905 - Bitter actively participates in revolution, it is closely connected with social democrats, but thus together with group of intellectuals day before «bloody Sunday» visits S.JU.Vitte and tries to prevent tragedy. After its revolution arrest (participation in revolution preparation) is incriminated, but in protection of writer European cultural environment acts both Russian, and. Bitter release.
  • Beginning of 1906 - Bitter will emigrate from Russia. It goes to America, to collect means for support of revolution in Russia.
  • 1907 - in America leaves novel "Mother". In London at V congress RSDRP Bitter gets acquainted with V.I.Uljanovym.
  • End 1906 - 1913 - Maxim Gorky constantly lives on island Capri (Italy). Here set of products is written: plays "Last", "Vassa Zheleznov" to lead "Summer", "Small town Okurov", novel «Life Matveja Kozhemjakina».
  • 1908 - 1913 - Bitter corresponds withLenin. Correspondence is penetrated by disputes as sights of writer and politician disperse. Bitter, in particular, considers, that revolutionism needs to be connected to enlightenment and humanism. It opposes to its Bolsheviks.
  • 1913 - Bitter comes back to Russia. Same year writes "Childhood".
  • 1915 - is written novel «In people». Bitter starts to let out magazine "Annals".
  • 1917 - after Revolution Bitter appears in dual position: on one hand, it supports come power, with another - continues to remain at belief, considering what to be engaged it is necessary not class struggle, and culture of weights … Then writer starts to work in publishing house «World literature», bases newspaper «New life».
  • End of 1910th years - relations Bitter with new power gradually become aggravated.
  • 1921 - Maxim Gorky leaves Russia, officially - to Germany, to be treated, and actually - from punishment of Bolsheviks. Till 1924 writer lives in Germany and Czechoslovakia.
  • 1921 - 1922 - Bitter actively publishes articles in German magazines («Calling of writer and Russian literature of our time», «Russian cruelty», «Intelligency and revolution»). All of them speak about one - Bitter cannot accept happened in Russia; he still aspires to unite Russian workers of art abroad.
  • 1923 - Bitter writes «My universities».
  • 1925 - begins work on novel «Life Klima Samgina» which and has not been finished.
  • Middle of 1920th years - Maxim Gorky moves in Sorrento (Italy).
  • 1928 - Bitter makes a trip to USSR. All summer long he travels on country. Impressions of writer were reflected in book «On Union of Councils» (1929).
  • 1931 - Bitter moves to Moscow. Having seen enough during travel on results of influence of Bolshevist power it is absolute on everything, writer puts to itself purpose in every possible way to promote new to "cultural building». Under its initiative literary magazines and book publishing houses are created, there are book editions and series.
  • 1934 - Maxim Gorky represents itself as organizer and chairman of I All-Union congress of Soviet writers.
  • May of same year - is killed son Bitter Maxim. On one of versions, it has been made at initiative of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs.
  • on June, 18th, 1936 - Maxim Gorky dies in Hills. It is buried in Moscow. There is a version, that writer has been poisoned; just at this time by order ofStalinMoscow indicative processes in which as accused many friends Bitter acted prepared.

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